PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT2G16910.1
Common NameAMS, BHLH21, EN48, F12A24.9
Organism
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family bHLH
Protein Properties Length: 571aa    MW: 64879.2 Da    PI: 4.8184
Description bHLH family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT2G16910.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
1HLH40.35.8e-13315360555
                  HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHCTSCCC...TTS-STCHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH CS
          HLH   5 hnerErrRRdriNsafeeLrellPkaskapskKlsKaeiLekAveYIksLq 55 
                  + ++ErrRR+++N+++  Lr+l+P       +Kl+ a+iL  A++Y+k+Lq
  AT2G16910.1 315 NLMAERRRRKKLNDRLYALRSLVPRI-----TKLDRASILGDAINYVKELQ 360
                  5589*********************7.....7******************9 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PfamPF142154.2E-1810148IPR025610Transcription factor MYC/MYB N-terminal
PROSITE profilePS5088816.342310359IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
CDDcd000831.20E-14312362No hitNo description
SuperFamilySSF474591.19E-17313374IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
PfamPF000101.6E-10315360IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
SMARTSM003532.7E-16316365IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
Gene3DG3DSA:4.10.280.101.1E-16317373IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009555Biological Processpollen development
GO:0048657Biological Processanther wall tapetum cell differentiation
GO:0048658Biological Processanther wall tapetum development
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0000978Molecular FunctionRNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0009010anatomyseed
PO:0009031anatomysepal
PO:0009032anatomypetal
PO:0009046anatomyflower
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 571 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
MESNMQNLLE KLRPLVGARA WDYCVLWRLN EDQRFVKWMG CCCGGTELIA ENGTEEFSYG  60
GCRDVMFHHP RTKSCEFLSH LPASIPLDSG IYAETLLTNQ TGWLSESSEP SFMQETICTR  120
VLIPIPGGLV ELFATRHVAE DQNVVDFVMG HCNMLMDDSV TINMMVADEV ESKPYGMLSG  180
DIQQKGSKEE DMMNLPSSYD ISADQIRLNF LPQMSDYETQ HLKMKSDYHH QALGYLPENG  240
NKEMMGMNPF NTVEEDGIPV IGEPSLLVNE QQVVNDKDMN ENGRVDSGSD CSDQIDDEDD  300
PKYKKKSGKG SQAKNLMAER RRRKKLNDRL YALRSLVPRI TKLDRASILG DAINYVKELQ  360
NEAKELQDEL EENSETEDGS NRPQGGMSLN GTVVTGFHPG LSCNSNVPSV KQDVDLENSN  420
DKGQEMEPQV DVAQLDGREF FVKVICEYKP GGFTRLMEAL DSLGLEVTNA NTTRYLSLVS  480
NVFKVEKNDN EMVQAEHVRN SLLEITRNTS RGWQDDQMAT GSMQNEKNEV DYQHYDDHQH  540
HNGHHHPFDH QMNQSAHHHH HHQHINHYHN Q
Nucleic Localization Signal ? help Back to Top
NLS
No. Start End Sequence
1303324KKKSGKGSQAKNLMAERRRRKK
2318325ERRRRKKL
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
GEO1453600180.0
Genevisible266530_at0.0
Expression AtlasAT2G16910-
AtGenExpressAT2G16910-
ATTED-IIAT2G16910-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: First observed a bud stage of 0.6-mm, shortly after microspore release from the postmeiotic tetrads. Later restricted within the tapetum, microspores and anther locule. Still visible within the haploid nuclei, each of which had migrated to the pollen cell wall prior to pollen mitosis I. Not expressed later. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12535353}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Mostly expressed in closed, post-meiotic buds, and, to a lower extent, in pre-meiotic buds. Detected in leaves, stems, and flowers. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12535353, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12679534}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a basic helix-loop helix transcription factor involved in tapetal cell development. Loss of function mutations are male sterile. AMS binds to a region termed the E box of target gene promoters.
UniProtTranscription factor. Plays a crucial role in tapetum development. Required for male fertility and pollen differentiation, especially during the post-meiotic transcriptional regulation of microspore development within the developing anther (PubMed:12535353). Binds E-box regions in the AHL16/TEK promoter. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12535353, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24804694}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. AMS can target ASHR3 to chromatin and regulate genes involved in stamen development and function
    [PMID: 17978851]
  2. AMS alters the expression of genes required for tapetal differentiation and degradation.
    [PMID: 20118226]
  3. DYT1, TDF1 and AMS function in early tapetum development, while MS188 and MS1 are important for late tapetum development.
    [PMID: 21957980]
  4. AMS mutation affects genes with putative functions in phosphorylation, exocytosis, stress-response and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways during male reproduction.
    [PMID: 22336428]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
SourceLink
PlantRegMapAT2G16910.1
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
PlantRegMapRetrieveRetrieve
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT3G11440 (A), AT4G21330 (A), AT5G06100 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G13140(A), AT1G59740(A), AT1G66850(A), AT1G67990(A), AT1G73220(A), AT1G75790(A), AT1G75920(A), AT3G13220(A), AT3G28740(A), AT3G51590(A), AT4G00040(A), AT5G17050(A), AT5G49070(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDBrassinosteroid
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT4G21330
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT2G16910
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAJ5119910.0AJ511991.1 Brassica napus mRNA for bHLH transcription factor.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_179283.20.0transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES
SwissprotQ9ZVX20.0AMS_ARATH; Transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES
TrEMBLD7L8870.0D7L887_ARALL; Putative uncharacterized protein
STRINGAT2G16910.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
MalvidsOGEM75892741
Representative plantOGRP37041323
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
    [PMID:11118137]
  2. Sorensen AM, et al.
    The Arabidopsis ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) gene encodes a MYC class transcription factor.
    Plant J., 2003. 33(2): p. 413-23
    [PMID:12535353]
  3. Heim MA, et al.
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2003. 20(5): p. 735-47
    [PMID:12679534]
  4. Toledo-Ortiz G,Huq E,Quail PH
    The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(8): p. 1749-70
    [PMID:12897250]
  5. Bailey PC, et al.
    Update on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(11): p. 2497-502
    [PMID:14600211]
  6. Wellmer F,Riechmann JL,Alves-Ferreira M,Meyerowitz EM
    Genome-wide analysis of spatial gene expression in Arabidopsis flowers.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(5): p. 1314-26
    [PMID:15100403]
  7. Bauer P, et al.
    Analysis of sequence, map position, and gene expression reveals conserved essential genes for iron uptake in Arabidopsis and tomato.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 136(4): p. 4169-83
    [PMID:15531708]
  8. Zhang W, et al.
    Regulation of Arabidopsis tapetum development and function by DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) encoding a putative bHLH transcription factor.
    Development, 2006. 133(16): p. 3085-95
    [PMID:16831835]
  9. Li N, et al.
    The rice tapetum degeneration retardation gene is required for tapetum degradation and anther development.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(11): p. 2999-3014
    [PMID:17138695]
  10. Wijeratne AJ, et al.
    Differential gene expression in Arabidopsis wild-type and mutant anthers: insights into anther cell differentiation and regulatory networks.
    Plant J., 2007. 52(1): p. 14-29
    [PMID:17666023]
  11. Alves-Ferreira M, et al.
    Global expression profiling applied to the analysis of Arabidopsis stamen development.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 145(3): p. 747-62
    [PMID:17905860]
  12. Thorstensen T, et al.
    The Arabidopsis SET-domain protein ASHR3 is involved in stamen development and interacts with the bHLH transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS).
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2008. 66(1-2): p. 47-59
    [PMID:17978851]
  13. Xing S,Zachgo S
    ROXY1 and ROXY2, two Arabidopsis glutaredoxin genes, are required for anther development.
    Plant J., 2008. 53(5): p. 790-801
    [PMID:18036205]
  14. Xu J, et al.
    The ABORTED MICROSPORES regulatory network is required for postmeiotic male reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell, 2010. 22(1): p. 91-107
    [PMID:20118226]
  15. Wang C,Xu J,Zhang D,Wilson ZA,Zhang D
    An effective approach for identification of in vivo protein-DNA binding sites from paired-end ChIP-Seq data.
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2010. 11: p. 81
    [PMID:20144209]
  16. Ye Q, et al.
    Brassinosteroids control male fertility by regulating the expression of key genes involved in Arabidopsis anther and pollen development.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010. 107(13): p. 6100-5
    [PMID:20231470]
  17. Zhu J,Lou Y,Xu X,Yang ZN
    A genetic pathway for tapetum development and function in Arabidopsis.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2011. 53(11): p. 892-900
    [PMID:21957980]
  18. Ma X,Feng B,Ma H
    AMS-dependent and independent regulation of anther transcriptome and comparison with those affected by other Arabidopsis anther genes.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2012. 12: p. 23
    [PMID:22336428]
  19. Wang XT,Yuan C,Yuan TT,Cui SJ
    The Arabidopsis LFR gene is required for the formation of anther cell layers and normal expression of key regulatory genes.
    Mol Plant, 2012. 5(5): p. 993-1000
    [PMID:22461668]
  20. Feng B, et al.
    Regulation of the Arabidopsis anther transcriptome by DYT1 for pollen development.
    Plant J., 2012. 72(4): p. 612-24
    [PMID:22775442]
  21. Lou Y, et al.
    The tapetal AHL family protein TEK determines nexine formation in the pollen wall.
    Nat Commun, 2014. 5: p. 3855
    [PMID:24804694]
  22. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
    [PMID:25750178]
  23. Xu XF, et al.
    Magnesium Transporter 5 plays an important role in Mg transport for male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2015. 84(5): p. 925-36
    [PMID:26478267]